Coffee Producing Countries Information
In a general coffee education tour, an important reference is geography. Coffee is cultivated in over 65 countries around the world. The coffee producing countries are found in the tropical zone because coffee trees need a lot of water and humidity.
WHERE DO COFFEE PLANTS GROW?
The best climate for coffee growing is either subtropical or equatorial. This zone is located between the Tropics of Cancer (North) and Capricorn (South). The coffee producing countries located on these areas of the Earth have rich soils. Volcanic soil is considered the best. High altitude and adequate rainfall are also main factors for good coffee harvesting.
Coffee producing countries located in the subtropical region have altitude of 600-1000 meters (approx. 2000-3300 ft.). As far as coffee production is concerned this altitude for example includes coffee producing countries like Brazil and Mexico in America as well as Zimbabwe in Africa. This type of climate permits only one growing season due to the equal rainy and dry seasons.
Coffee producing countries located in the equatorial region have altitude of 1100-2000 meters (approx. 3600-6600 ft.). As far as coffee production is concerned this altitude for example includes coffee producing countries like Colombia in America as well as Ethiopia & Kenya in Africa. This type of climate permits two growing seasons due to the frequent rainfall.
The most important coffee producing countries
- SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.
- CENTRAL AMERICA: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.
- CARIBBEAN REGION: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico.
- WEST AFRICA: Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo.
- CENTRAL AFRICA: Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Rwanda, Uganda, Zaire.
- EAST AFRICA: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania.
- SOUTH-WEST AFRICA: Angola.
- SOUTH-EAST AFRICA: Madagascar, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
- ARABIAN PENINSULA: Yemen.
- ASIA: India, Thailand, Vietnam.
- PACIFIC RIM: Hawaii (USA State), Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines.
COFFEE PLANTS VARIATIONS
Coffee trees could compare to vineyards. They produce different varieties of beans as vineyards of grapes. Arabica & Robusta are the most cultivated varieties of coffee plants. In order to produce a high quality wine a special care is given to soil, climate, plants and harvesting. Coffee producing countries treat their plantations as vineyards.
In 1993, 28 of the largest coffee producing countries founded the Association of Coffee Producing Countries (APPC). These countries were yielding the 85% of the world’s coffee bean production. Their goal was to manipulate prices like OPEC organization in petroleum. The Association of Coffee Producing Countries failed to increase prices by lowering the exports and in 2002 announced the termination of the organization.
COFFEE PRODUCING COUNTRIES & MANUFACTURING
The majority of the coffee producing countries are not involved in coffee manufacturing at all. Coffee beans are usually exported to advance technology countries which transform them to drinkable coffee. Many of the coffee producing countries are poor. They usually do not have the needed know-how or they are lack of capital to invest on technology.
Statistical information on coffee producing countries
- The coffee producing countries export the 75% of their production to the rest of the world.
- Brazil is the #1 coffee bean producer in the world, followed by Vietnam & Colombia.
- Brazil is the #1 producer of Arabica beans.
- Vietnam is the #1 producer of Robusta beans.
- Mexico is the #1 producer of certified organic coffee beans.
- More than 50% of coffee bean production comes from Brazil & Vietnam.
General statistical information on coffee
- Annual global coffee production is between 100-115 million bags (6-7 million tons). The number varies depending on the weather factor of each year in the coffee producing countries.
- USA imports the 70% of the total exported quantities of coffee beans.
- USA is the #1 coffee consumer in the world followed by Brazil.
- Coffee bean has become the 2nd most valuable natural commodity of international trade, just behind crude oil.
- 100 kg of coffee fruit (berries) make between 10-20 kg of coffee beans.
Special coffee beans from some of the coffee producing countries
- JACU BIRD from Brazil. The coffee cherries are eaten by this bird which is like a pheasant and then the coffee beans are collected from its dung.
- KOPI LUWAK from Indonesia. The coffee cherries are eaten by a mammal called Civet and then the coffee beans are collected from its dung.
- GESHA from Panama. Small quantities with superior taste.
- KONA from Hawaii. Volcanic soil, perfect growing conditions.
- BLUE MOUNTAIN from Jamaica. Ideal climate for superb coffee.